Plant Physiology
Bio 340  2011
Class Notes

**Plant Physiology Bio 340 - Broad Lecture Outline (does not include ALL of the details that you need to know for the exam but it should be an aid in your preparation) SOME Key Words and Concepts:

First Lecture Section: Phytohormones

Short Version PwPts. -  ./PltPhysLe1&Cel.ppt,  ../Phyto1.pptLect.Phyto2,

Most of the material pertaining to these outline can be found in chapters 1, 15, 16, 17 and 19 in your textbook.

- Integration and Control
    Increase in size

- Phototropism
    Charles and Frances Darwin 1881 - canary grass
    Fritz Went  1929   movement of phytohormones

- Auxins
    Cell Elongation
    Adventitious Root Growth
    Promotes Stem Elongation: Inhibits Root Elongation
    Apical Dominance
    Leaf Abscission (Ethylene)
    Chlorophyll Maintenance
    Seedling Growth
    Female Flower Development in Imperfect Flowers
    Fruit Growth
    Parthenocarpic Development (Massart, Fitting, Yasuda, Gustofson)
    Tryptophan - Alternative Pathways
    Inactivation .........

- Giberrellins
    From "Foolish Seedling Disease"
    From Leaves, Embryos, Apical Meristems
    52 different Forms
    Terpene - Mavalonic Pathway
    Normal Stem Elongation & Hyperelongation
    Partenocarpic Fruits
    Seedling Development
        breaking dormancy - bud break, early germination
    Mobilization of Food Reserves in Grasses
    Bolting in Rosette-type Plants
    Promotes Cell Elongation and Division
    Transported in Phloem and Xylem
    Male Flower Production in Imperfect Flowers
    Promotes Flower and Fruit Development - "Ripe to Flower" Stage

- Cytokinins
    Stewart (1930's) and Skoog (1950's) - Tissue Culture
    Xylem Transport
    Mainly Affects Cell Division
    "Witches Broom", "Crown Gall"
    Apical Dominance (antagonistic role)
    Promotes Leaf Expansion
    Promotes Seed Germination in Some Plants
    Mobilization of Nutrients

- Callus Initiation Medium (CIM), Root Initiation Medium (RIM), Shoot Initiation Medium (SIM)

- Ethylene (a gas)
    Production Under Stree
    Can Be Made From Methionine
    Promotes Leaf Epinasty
    Promotes Senescence
    Promotes Fruit Ripening
    Promotes Etiolation; Mainenance of Plumular Arch and Hypocotyl Hook
    Promotes Bud Dormancy
    Inhibits Cell Elongation
   * Ethylene Signal Transduction Pathway

- Abscissic Acid (ABA)
    Terpene Isolated From Dormant Buds
    Growth Inhibitor in Seeds
    Causes Stomatal Closure

- Brassinosteroids - Polyhydrated Sterol
    In Most Plant Tissues
    Stimulates Shoot Elongation & Ethylene Production
    Inhibits Root Growth Development

- Polyamines
    Isolated From Human Semen
    Effect on Macromolecules and Membranes
    Role in Prokaryotic and EuKaryotic Cells
    Growth Factor

- Phytohormones, Senescence & Fall Color Change in Deciduous Trees

- Flowering - Floral Induction
    Chailakhan - Florigen

- Photoperiodism
    Garner and Allard (1930's) - Maryland mammoth Tobacco
    Short Day, Long Day, Day Neutral, Short-Long Day, Long-Short Day Plants
    Qualitative; Quantitative
    Hamner and Bonner (1930's, 1940's)
    Borthwick and Hendricks (1950's)
    Phytochromes (A -> E), Cryptochromes - Blue & UV
        structure, action spectra
    Mechanism of Phytochrome Action
    Control of Gene Activation
    Metabolic Switch

- Dormancy and Quiescence

- Vernalization/Stratification


Second Lecture Section:  Water Relations  ../PltPhyLe1WRel1.ppt , ../WaterReIIBio340.ppt

Most of the material pertaining to these outline topics can be found in chapters 10, 11, 12 and 13 in your textbook.

- Flow of Water and Minerals through the plant
    chemical nature of water - dielectric constants, dipolar, hydrogen bonds, universal solvent, hydrated shells, freezing
    point, boiling point
    importance of water
    organs and tissues involved in translocation of water, minerals & food

-Gas Exchange
    carbon dioxide and oxygen
    transpiration  (trade off...)

    solute and solvent
    laws of thermodynamics
    hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic
    osmotic pressure, osmolarity
    wall ressure
    water potential, plasmolytic method, gravimetric method, Chardakoff falling drop method, pressure bomb
    movement of water based on water potential of individual cells (soil -> root -> stem -> Leaves -> air),
    water potential gradient

-Mechanisms for Water Movement Through the Plant
    root pressure, hydathodes, guttation, root structure - tissues (functions)
    capillary action, adhesion, cohesion
    cohesion-tension, tracheids, xylem vessels, boardered pits..., leaf structure - tissues (function), major      
    resistances at leaf - cuticular, substomatal, stomatal, boundary layer
    stomates - structure - guard cells, accessory (subsidiary) cells (function & adaptations)
    cause of guard cell action, classical theory of stomatal action, ion flux theory

-Factors Affecting Stomatal Resistance and the Rate of Transpiration
    water stress, peristomatal transiration, role of ABA (Wilty Mutant Tomato)
    carbon dioxide, cell respiration
    light, quality, quantity, C3 vs C4 plants, CAM plants
    Hhmidity, vapor pressure
    wind, boundary layer, transpirational cooling, sunken stomates, epidermal hairs, speed..
    plant factors, rhizosphere, density and distribution of stomates
    endogenous rhythms

-Methods for Detecting and Measuring Transpiration
    weighing methods
    potometer methods
    cuvette (tent) methods
    cobolt chloride

-Diurnal (24 hour) Cycle of Stomatal Movement and Water Uptake

-Soil Factors in Water Absorption
    root, root hairs and micorrhiza - ectomicorrhiza, endomycorrhiza, mucilage, mucigel
    soil particle size
    water potential (total soil moisture stress) of the soil, osmotic potential, matric potential
    availability of water - field capacity, permanent wilting point, TSMS (water potential of the soil)
    soil water content, relative water content

-Necessary minerals
    macrominerals, microminerals, beneficial minerals
    soil reservoir - ion exchange, lytropic series, acid rain,




Third Lecture Section:  Photosynthesis, Respiration and Related Biochemical Pathways

Most of the .material pertaining to these outline topics can be found in chapters 7, 8, 9 and 10 in your textbook.  ./Photo.ppt

Translocation of Photosynthate


- Oxidizable Organic Molecules (Photoassimilates, Photosynthate)

- Photosynthesis - Green plant Cells - Photoautotrophs
    light dependent
    water split, purple sulfur bacteria

- Plastids - Chloroplasts (Structure - Thylacoids, Grana, Lamellae, Stroma, Photosynthetic Units, Reaction Centers, Photosystem II, Photosystem I)
    development of chloroplasts...

- Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

- Pigment Molecules Involved - Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Chlorophylls c and d, Carotinoids, Phycobilins, Flavinoids, Betacyanins
    absorption specta
    action spectra

- Light Phase of Photosynthsis - Z apthway
    noncyclic Photophosphorylation - advantages & disadvantages
    cyclic Photophosphorylation - advantages & disadvantages
    products - NADPH2 and ATP

- Calvin-Benson Cycle, Calvin Cycle, PCR Cycle

- Warburg Effect

- Photorespiration

- Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Cycle - advantages and disadvantages

-C3 Pathway

- C4  Pathway
    Krans leaf anatomy

- CAM Pathway

- Advantages and Disadvantages of C3, C4 and CAM Plants

- Ambient factors Affecting Photosynthesis
    light saturation point
    light limited photosynthesis

- Shade Plants vs. Sun Plants (Structure and Function)

- Separate Conducting Systems in Plants
    xylem - tracheids & vessel elements
    phloem - seive tube elements & companion cells (nucleus), parenchyma, fibers
        cytoplasmic connections, p-proteins, callus plugs, seive plate, seive pores

- Phloem Sap Content - Sugars, Phytohormones, Amino Acids, Minerals (etc.)
    use of aphids
    use of radioactive photoassimilate
    source --> sink
- Carbon Allocation - Starch (storage)   Sugars (translocation)
    starch synthesis

- Vascular Bundles in Leaves, Stems and Roots

- Munch Pressure-Flow Hypothesis - E. Munch 1930 - Phloem Loading, Hydrostatic Pressure, Bulk Flow, Phloem Unloading
    direction of sap flow
    rate of sap flow
    exchange between sap and phloem

- Support for Munch pressure-Flow Hypothesis

- Factors Affecting the Translocation of Sap

- Development of Tissues of Transport and Translocation - Structure and Function

- Cellular respiration
        Krebbs Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain, Cyanide resistant respiration (positives & negatives)
        glycolysis - Embdem Meyerhoff Parnass Pathway
    Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway (positives & negatives)

- Lipid catabolism - Glycolate Pathway

- Role of Respiration in Biosynthesis

- Rate of Respiration - RQ values



Good Luck!!